1.1.U4 Multicellular organisms have properties that emerge due to the interaction of their cellular components. (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 10).
Define and provide an example of unicellular and multicellular organism.
Define and give examples of emergent properties.
1.1.U5: Specialized tissues can develop by cell differentiation in multicellular organisms (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 11).
Outline the benefits of cell specialization in a multicellular organism.
1.1.U6: Differentiation involves the expressions of some genes and not others in a cell (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 11).
Describe the relationship between cell differentiation and gene expression.
1.1.U7: The capacity of stem cells to divide and differentiate along different pathways is necessary in embryonic development and also makes stem cells suitable for therapeutic uses (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 12).
Define zygote and embryo.
List 2 key properties of stem cells that have made them on the active areas of research in biology and medicine today.
Explain why stem cells are most prevalent in the early embryonic development of a multicellular organism.
Contrast the characteristics of embryonic, umbilical cord and adult somatic stem cells.
Define totipotent, multipotent and pluripotent.
1.1.A3: Use of stem cells to treat Stargardt’s disease and one other named condition (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 13).
Outline the cause and symptoms of Stargardt’s disease.
Explain how stem cells are used in the treatment of Stargardt’s disease.
Outline the cause and symptoms of leukemia.
Explain how stem cells are used in the treatment of leukemia.
1.1.A4: Ethics of the therapeutic use of stem cells from specially created embryos, from the umbilical cord blood of a newborn baby and from an adult’s own tissues (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 15).
List the source and mechanism of obtaining stem cells.
Discuss the benefits and drawbacks in using embryonic, cord blood and adult stem cells.
1.1.NOS2: Ethical implications of research- research involving stems cells in growing in importance and raises ethical issues (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 15).
Explain why biological research must take ethical issues into consideration.
3.5.U5: Clones are groups of genetically identical organisms, derived from a single original parent cell (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 195).
Contrast sexual and asexual reproduction.
Define clone and cloning.
Describe different ways in which natural clones can arise.
3.5.U7: Animals can be cloned at the embryo stage by breaking up the embryo into more than one group of cells (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 198).
Describe the process of reproductive cloning via embryo splitting.
Outline example of cloning animal embryos via natural and artificial embryo splitting.
3.5.U8: Methods have been developed for cloning adult animals using differentiated cells (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 198).
Describe the process of cloning via somatic cell nuclear transfer.
3.5.A4: Production of cloned embryos produced by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 199).
Outline the production of Dolly the sheep using somatic cell nuclear transfer.